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INTRODUCTION

The Advanced Placement Program (AP) offers a course and exam in AP United States History to qualified students who wish to complete studies in secondary school equivalent to an introductory college course in U.S. history. The AP U.S. History Exam presumes at least one year of college-level preparation, as is described in this book.

The Advanced Placement Program (AP) offers a course and exam in AP United States History to qualified students who wish to complete studies in secondary school equivalent to an introductory college course in U.S. history. The AP U.S. History Exam presumes at least one year of college-level preparation, as is described in this book.

1. Pre-Columbian Societies

Early inhabitants of the Americas

American Indian empires in Mesoamerica, the Southwest, and the Mississippi Valley

American Indian cultures of North America at the time of European contact

2. Transatlantic Encounters and Colonial Beginnings, 1492–1690

First European contacts with American Indians

Spain’s empire in North America

French colonization of Canada

English settlement of New England, the Mid-Atlantic region, and the South

From servitude to slavery in the Chesapeake region

Religious diversity in the American colonies

Resistance to colonial authority: Bacon’s Rebellion, the Glorious Revolution, and the Pueblo Revolt

3. Colonial North America, 1690–1754

Population growth and immigration

Transatlantic trade and the growth of seaports

The eighteenth-century back country

Growth of plantation economies and slave societies

The Enlightenment and the Great Awakening

Colonial governments and imperial policy in British North America

4. The American Revolutionary Era, 1754–1789

The French and Indian War

The Imperial Crisis and resistance to Britain

The War for Independence

State constitutions and the Articles of Confederation

The federal Constitution

5. The Early Republic, 1789–1815

Washington, Hamilton, and shaping of the national government

Emergence of political parties: Federalists and Republicans

Republican Motherhood and education for women

Beginnings of the Second Great Awakening

Significance of Jefferson’s presidency

Expansion into the trans-Appalachian West; American Indian resistance

Growth of slavery and free Black communities

The War of 1812 and its consequences

6. Transformation of the Economy and Society in Antebellum America

The transportation revolution and creation of a national market economy

Beginnings of industrialization and changes in social and class structures

Immigration and nativist reaction

Planters, yeoman farmers, and slaves in the cotton South

7. The Transformation of Politics in Antebellum America

Emergence of the second party system

Federal authority and its opponents: judicial federalism, the Bank War, tariff controversy, and states’ rights debates

Jacksonian democracy and its successes and limitations

8. Religion, Reform, and Renaissance in Antebellum America

Evangelical Protestant revivalism

Social reforms

Ideals of domesticity

Transcendentalism and utopian communities

American Renaissance: literary and artistic expressions

9. Territorial Expansion and Manifest Destiny

Forced removal of American Indians to the trans-Mississippi West

Western migration and cultural interactions

Territorial acquisitions

Early U.S. imperialism: the Mexican War

10. The Crisis of the Union

Pro- and antislavery arguments and conflicts

Compromise of 1850 and popular sovereignty

The Kansas–Nebraska Act and the emergence of the Republican Party

Abraham Lincoln, the election of 1860, and secession

11. Civil War

Two societies at war: mobilization, resources, and internal dissent

Military strategies and foreign diplomacy

Emancipation and the role of African Americans in the war

Social, political, and economic effects of war in the North, South, and West

12. Reconstruction

Presidential and Radical Reconstruction

Southern state governments: aspirations, achievements, failures

Role of African Americans in politics, education, and the economy

Compromise of 1877

Impact of Reconstruction

13. The Origins of the New South

Reconfiguration of southern agriculture: sharecropping and crop-lien system

Expansion of manufacturing and industrialization

The politics of segregation: Jim Crow and disfranchisement

14. Development of the West in the Late Nineteenth Century

Expansion and development of western railroads

Competitors for the West: miners, ranchers, homesteaders, and American Indians

Government policy toward American Indians

Gender, race, and ethnicity in the far West

Environmental impacts of western settlement

15. Industrial America in the Late Nineteenth Century

Corporate consolidation of industry

Effects of technological development on the worker and workplace

Labor and unions

National politics and influence of corporate power

Migration and immigration: the changing face of the nation

Proponents and opponents of the new order, e.g., Social Darwinism and Social Gospel

16. Urban Society in the Late Nineteenth Century

Urbanization and the lure of the city

City problems and machine politics

Intellectual and cultural movements and popular entertainment

17. Populism and Progressivism

Agrarian discontent and political issues of the late nineteenth century

Origins of Progressive reform: municipal, state, and national

Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson as Progressive presidents

Women’s roles: family, workplace, education, politics, and reform

Black America: urban migration and civil rights initiatives

18. The Emergence of America as a World Power

American imperialism: political and economic expansion

War in Europe and American neutrality

The First World War at home and abroad

Treaty of Versailles

Society and economy in the postwar years

19. The New Era: 1920s

The business of America and the consumer economy

Republican politics: Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover

The culture of Modernism: science, the arts, and entertainment

Responses to Modernism: religious fundamentalism, nativism, and Prohibition

The ongoing struggle for equality: African Americans and women

20. The Great Depression and the New Deal

Causes of the Great Depression

The Hoover administration’s response

Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the New Deal

Labor and union recognition

The New Deal coalition and its critics from the Right and the Left

Surviving hard times: American society during the Great Depression

21. The Second World War

The rise of fascism and militarism in Japan, Italy, and Germany

Prelude to war: policy of neutrality

The attack on Pearl Harbor and United States declaration of war

Fighting a multifront war

Diplomacy, war aims, and wartime conferences

The United States as a global power in the Atomic Age

22. The Home Front During the War

Wartime mobilization of the economy

Urban migration and demographic changes

Women, work, and family during the war

Civil liberties and civil rights during wartime

War and regional development

Expansion of government power

23. The United States and the Early Cold War

Origins of the Cold War

Truman and containment

The Cold War in Asia: China, Korea, Vietnam, and Japan

Diplomatic strategies and policies of the Eisenhower and Kennedy administrations

The Red Scare and McCarthyism

Impact of the Cold War on American society

24. The 1950s

Emergence of the modern civil rights movement

The affluent society and “the other America”

Consensus and conformity: suburbia and middle-class America

Social critics, nonconformists, and cultural rebels

Impact of changes in science, technology, and medicine

25. The Turbulent 1960s

From the New Frontier to the Great Society

Expanding movements for civil rights

Cold War confrontations: Asia, Latin America, and Europe

Beginning of Détente

The antiwar movement and the counterculture

26. Politics and Economics at the End of the Twentieth Century

The election of 1968 and the “Silent Majority”

Nixon’s challenges: Vietnam, China, and Watergate

Changes in the American economy: the energy crisis, deindustrialization, and the service economy

The New Right and the Reagan revolution

End of the Cold War

27. Society and Culture at the End of the Twentieth Century

Demographic changes: surge of immigration after 1965, Sunbelt migration, and the graying of America

Revolutions in biotechnology, mass communication, and computers

Politics in a multicultural society

28. The United States in the Post–Cold War World

Globalization and the American economy

Unilateralism vs. multilateralism in foreign policy

Domestic and foreign terrorism

Environmental issues in a global context